This part of ISO 12967 provides guidance for the description, planning and development of new systems, as well as for the integration of existing information systems, both within one enterprise and across different healthcare organizations, through an architecture integrating the common data and business logic into a specific architectural layer (i.e. the middleware), distinct from individual applications and accessible throughout the whole information system through services. This part of ISO 12967 is also independent from, and does not imply either explicitly or implicitly, any specific technological solution or product for its deployment. Accordingly, the formalization of the architecture according to two lower levels of the ODP reference model, the engineering and technology viewpoints, is outside the scope of this part. The language and notations used here for specifying the architecture are based on UML (Unified Modelling Language) complemented by case studies and other paradigms widely utilized by other standards in health informatics. The level of the specification is complete and non-ambiguous enough to allow its implementation into the specific physical and technological scenarios adopted by the various healthcare organizations and vendors. Accordingly, methodology formalized by the Engineering and Technology viewpoints of the RM ODP Reference Model1) can be followed for the implementation.